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Systems Continuum


The world of Systems is evolving at a very rapid pace. In today’s world, where computers have become as ubiquitous as televisions, Information Technology plays a critical role in an organization. Today’s business does not accommodate a trade-off between scale and flexibility but demands synergies from both. Systems Continuum explores different aspects of Information Technology and Information Systems in business by initiating and conducting discussions on cutting-edge topics. It provides a forum for the exchange of ideas on the latest developments in the field of Systems and IT. Each Systems Continuum consists of a series of events centred on a theme. Eminent speakers from industry and students of management converge for a where myriad aspect across sectors are explored by initiating discussions on issues at the forefront of the industry leaders.

Systematics continuum 2017

The Systems Continuum 2017 was organized on August 19th, 2017 with a theme which is necessary to understand the impact of information technology in the different dimensions of business. The Systems Continuum 2017 saw a series of lectures centered on the theme:

“Disruption by information technology in various domains of business”

Even in an industry accustomed to waves of change, technology executives are now navigating an unprecedented period of disruption and innovation. Disruptive effects are created by Innovation which has wide-ranging impact on people, technology, and businesses. In the competitive market Information technology is not a support function of a business but incorporated with every function of business, even the core function of a business itself. There are also various business models supported by information technology that disrupts the market. For e.g., FinTech companies are disrupting financial transactions, Templated analytical products disrupting the consulting industry, Industry 4.0 disrupted the trends of automation and data exchange in manufacturing.


The following speakers delivered lectures at the Systems Continuum 2017:

  •  Mr. Biren Parekh – VP and Program Director, Intellect Design Arena
  •  Mr. Ankush Gadi – Head of Business Operations, Thomas Reuters South Asia
  •  Mr. Bhuwan Lodha – Vice President – Digital at Mckinsey and Company
  •  Mr. Rajesh Chandiramani – Senior Vice President, Tech Mahindra(GLC)
  •  Mr. Raja N. Murthy Nair – Vice President, Engineering at Kirusa, Inc.
  •  Mr. Madan Mewari – Senior Vice President, Birlasoft

Subthemes for Systems Continuum 2017

Indicated below are the suggestive and non-restrictive sub-themes for the seminar:

1.   Creating an ecosystem of innovation in India considering the hostile USA Govt. and untapped Indian market

President Donald Trump before his presidential election has focussed on the issue of outsourcing and has spoken openly against the outsourcing practices followed by Indian IT companies. One of the major agendas during his presidential campaign was “Buy American, hire American”. After he was elected as president, he has taken multiple steps to curb export of jobs and services. He has introduced a H-1B visa reform bill to which is about to impact the IT business drastically. US accounts for nearly 60 per cent of the software export business for Indian players and the changes in the offing could make a big dent in their revenues.

New thinking on how companies can deliver core business strategies while producing enhanced environmental and socioeconomic benefits is a must for any company wishing to become truly sustainable. Innovation is critical to the new world of sustainability and helps to distinguish between the "leaders" and the "followers".

A vibrant innovation ecosystem consists of many stakeholders. Talent is the first and foremost. A rich pool of talent with diverse experience and skill-set can bring about market-place disruptions. Academia, another stakeholder, plays a big role in developing such talent. Today’s business environment requires creating a mindset shift from the traditional career paths to encourage risk-taking, challenging status quo, ability to think differently and be more adaptive. University and colleges have a significant role to play in shaping this kind of talent base. The talent needs to be supported by a free flow of risk capital. Venture community, including angel networks and incubation firms, help accelerate innovation. Apart from these, a key enabler for innovation ecosystem is in the form of industry bodies that help create, support and grow an environment conducive for innovation.

It has been more than three decades since the Indian IT industry has been export driven. Now with adversity faced in foreign soils, Indian IT services must align with the needs of the Indian market. India is the third largest economy in the world and now one can’t say that the Indian market is not well funded to get the IT services.  There is a lot of scope available, but these companies must customize their services to meet the diversified need of Indian clients. Introduction of GST is just the tip of the iceberg. It will not be very difficult for the companies to identify the local issues and provide products or services to solve those. Now the time has come to move out of the safe zone and focus on innovative products to meet the need of new geographies.

 2.   Opportunities and threats posed by IOT in supply chain

            The Internet of Things is expected to generate a plethora of data as machines talk to machines, with sensors on absolutely every object or person!

 The combination of mobile computing, analytics, and cloud services, all of which are fuelled by the Internet of Things (IoT), is changing how delivery and fulfilment companies are conducting their operations.

            One of the biggest trends poised to upend supply chain management is asset tracking, which gives companies a way to totally overhaul their supply chain and logistic operations by giving them the tools to make better decisions and save time and money. Delivery company DHL and tech giant Cisco estimated in 2015 that IoT technologies such as asset tracking solutions could have an impact of more than $1.9 trillion in the supply chain and logistics sector.

 Opportunities by IOT

One of the best ways for companies to adopt IoT is to integrate it in their Supply Chains. Supply Chain optimizations due to IoT can offer a wide variety of gains.

a) The IoT presents unprecedented opportunities to digitally enable the supply chain, and to create solutions that combine digital and physical products and services.

 b) As well as being a driver for business and supply chain transformation, IoT can also drive incremental benefits to existing supply chain processes spanning asset utilization, warehouse space optimization or production planning.

 c)The proliferation of the adoption of IoT will drive the need for the redesign of many existing supply chain processes.

 Infusion of IoT in the supply chain will create new challenges and demands on the supply chain organization who will likely be tasked with delivering, sourcing and maintaining technology-enabled products and solutions.

Key challenges

One of the most fundamental challenges involved with IoT today are the different set of device capabilities available to manufacturers and process control operators.

Functionality is not the only focus that manufacturers will need to address in the coming years. Cost and industrial reliability will also play a part as early adopters vie to make the transition to IOT. 

Any ‘thing’ or device that is controlled by network communication that ‘faces’ the Internet is vulnerable to being hacked. IoT devices are in no way exempt from this.

The key challenges of implementing IoT might seem daunting. However, the problems associated with device capabilities, supply chain concerns, security, divides between people and safety ultimately demonstrate the extent to which departments, entire enterprises, and manufacturers must work together to navigate this new trend in technology going forward.

 3.   Advantages & Disadvantages of going Digital

Digital transformation –the reinvention of an organization through the use of digital technology to improve performance–is a priority for many businesses these days.

Digital revolution has resulted in changes brought about by improved communication technology and digital computing during the latter half of the twentieth century. Even though digital revolution has significantly modernized the way things are done, concerns have been raised against the emergence of digital world.

A digital transformation involves three key steps

Ø Converting data to insight, where you collect and make sense of your data

Ø Infusing insight to action, where you leverage the insight as an action within a business process, be it in your business application or business network

Ø Transforming action to outcome, where you reinvent business processes — or even business models — and create a stronger value proposition

Digital transformation, therefore, is simply the route that companies take toward leveraging this abundance of data and connectivity to change the way they compete and create value. It shifts the focus of value extraction from the hard assets and business processes companies control to information from and about those assets and business processes. This allows companies to improve how they currently operate, create new business models and sources of value, and maintain a competitive advantage. Business leaders who don’t seize this opportunity will see their business models and enterprise value erode — and be left behind the competition.

The concept of digital transformation is already producing tangible, real-world results. Take, for example, sensors on equipment in manufacturing plants. These sensors can provide data that helps predict an equipment failure before it happens, increasing effective maintenance on the shop floor. In the healthcare industry, contextual data enables advances in important areas such as cancer therapy. Innovative healthcare systems can analyze the success of certain treatments or medicines alongside a patient’s genome characteristics, increasing the likelihood of landing on the best treatment for that patient. These use cases just begin to scratch the surface of the potential of digitization.

The modern company must transform itself to adapt to the technology and processes needed in today’s digital world.

 4.   Disruption by information technologies to impact future business and human life at large

As we are aware, Information Technology had its modern existence from late sixties of the last century when the Arpanet was introduced, funded by the department of defence of USA. After that, the IT industry has come a long way to its current shape where it is playing a very dominant role in our every sphere of life. It has made revolutionary changes in information gathering and dissemination as well as in global communication. Twelve emerging technologies—including the mobile Internet, autonomous vehicles, and advanced genomics—have the potential to truly reshape the world in which we live and work. Leaders in both government and business must not only know what’s on the horizon but also start preparing for its impact.

The Essential technologies that will reshape the business world in future

·       Artificial intelligence (AI)

·       Augmented reality (AR)

·       Blockchain

·       Drones

·       Internet of Things (IoT)

·       Robots

·       Virtual reality (VR)

·       3D printing

·       Smart Manufacturing

Impact of technologies on life

·       Wealth boosted by technology has not been equally distributed

·       Doctors and scientists have used technology to tackle problems that once seemed insurmountable

·       Technology can help save the planet

·       Connectivity across the globe has improved safety of people

Technology is like a coin which has both positive and negative sides. We are the deciders and we have to choose how to use it. The usage of technology for over exploitation of resources should be always avoided. If we use it for positive things, it will have a positive effect on our lives and vice versa. Nobody would oppose the development of technologies in any sector but the developments should be in a positive way and they should not have any negative impact on present or future generations.


 5.   The FinTech effect and the disruption of financial services

FinTech sector has seen more than USD 19 Billion in investment, with the emergence of more than 12,000 start-ups in 2015 globally. These start-ups are using innovation to bring seamless and innovative financial services to the banked and unbanked population. As per NASSCOM, the Fin Tech software and service sector will grow at a rate of 7.1% and is expected to reach 45Billion USD by 2020.

The case is no different in India also. With a supportive regulator like RBI and Indian Govt., the FinTech sector is growing very fast by using the existing software infrastructure in India. As per NASSCOM prediction, FinTech software and service sector is expected to reach 2.4 Billion USD by 2020 from the present 1.2 Billion USD. The total transaction value of Indian Fintech sector in 2016 was approximately $33 billion, and it is expected to reach $73 Billion in 2020, according to a report by KPMG.

FinTech has become successful because of the adoption of technology. So, we can assume that FinTech is a technology oriented business in the financial sector that creates a tech-savvy business environment, competes or empowers the traditional financial institutions and creates an ecosystem having one eye on the future of financial companies and another eye on the customer value creation.

A committee was formed by govt of India headed by Mr. Chandrababu Naidu, Hon'ble. CM of Andhra Pradesh to address the issue of digital currency adoption in India. RBI has also given 11 non-financial institutions to run payment banks in India. From these decisions, the efforts of Govt and RBI is clearly visible. India has remained a bright spot in the technology market from a long time, and the same is to be adopted in FinTech industry.

 6.   Artificial intelligence and the future of templated consulting

Artificial intelligence has gained traction across various industries and as a result it’s likely to disrupt and change many professions in the near future. McKinsey & Company estimates that as much as 45% of the tasks currently performed by people can be automated, and not only routine tasks, but also tasks which require knowledge capabilities.

To what extent AI will impact the role of the consultant?

AI would create more demand for consultants that can help organisations implement practical AI solutions. Conversely, this very same technology will likely lead to a shrinkage of the consulting industry as AI becomes more advanced. However, this is relatively a long way off.

How will consultancy benefit from AI?

AI will provide many opportunities for consultants as soon as companies try to navigate the complex world of machine learning and grapple with how these technologies can be relevant in their organisations. Consultants can help organisations determine where AI can be applied. As with any technological advancement, organisations will rely heavily on consultants that understand how these technologies can add value and even more so on consultants that know how to practically implement these technologies.

Moreover, in the long term, as the repetitive tasks that humans perform in their jobs are replaced by AI, there will be more opportunity and time for humans to focus on the more creative aspects of their professions. This will apply to the consulting profession as much as it will apply to other professions.

AI is one such technology. Advisors need to reflect on what AI can do more effectively rather than it being a direct substitute. Here’s a quick list of what AI can do better than an advisor:

Respond lightning fast – AI doesn’t need to put clients on hold, write email replies or queue at the airline check-in counter

Access an encyclopaedic memory – AI can understand and access 1000’s of business tools and processes

Stay awake – 24 x 7 x 365

Remember conversations – track and analyse all conversations ever had with a customer for future learning

Analyse on the fly – review data trends to predict future behaviour

Continually learn and improve – from 1000’s of conversation patterns.

AI technology will be another tool – facilitating and enhancing data analysis and sharing to improve productivity, enhance the quality of insights and outcomes for clients. There’s no replacement for a trusted business advisor who can translate insights and recommendations gleaned from the data into actionable strategies successfully implemented. A powerful combination.

 7.   Are Indian firms in phase with global IT advancement? Where do we lag?

Indian IT companies are looking to build up their presence in the social, mobile, analytics and cloud (SMAC) space, but they have a long way to go to catch up with their global outsourcing peers when it comes to offering elements of these new technologies to clients.

Few examples are:

Infosys Ltd gets 8% of its $8.7 billion revenue from offering solutions to clients in the SMAC or digital space, a relatively small percentage when compared to global outsourcing giant Accenture Plc, which gets a fifth of its $30 billion revenue from client spending in that area.

Indian tech giants losing out to global software exporters when it comes to migrating existing infrastructure to cloud model. One of the instance is when IBM won a 10-year, multi-billion-dollar deal to provide computer infrastructure services to Dutch bank ABN Amro running on its cloud systems. As in most deals, the biggest names, including Infosys and Wipro were in the race to bag this contract.

Another wrinkle for Indian tech majors is the inability to offer IPs in cloud space which can help them bag large contracts when competing for large deals.

According to the HSBC Securities report, Accenture leads the pack among IT outsourcers, with about 3100 certified Workday consultants. Additionally, the outsourcer also has 1800 Salesforce-certified consultants. In comparison, top five Indian IT firms collectively have a little more than 2,000 Salesforce certified professionals.

The two things that they need to do to overcome this is:

To overcome the limited cloud-enabled infrastructure in mature markets compared to global outsourcers, India-centric vendors need to seek alternative channels such as partnerships to generate cloud sales and become the premier providers of specific and unique partner-based solutions

Second is to have hosting either in their own data centres in geographies where they want to provide these services or they should have tie-ups with data centres in those regions

To combat the long-term threat, companies will also have to change how their services are delivered as the lowered complexity of cloud-based solutions will reduce the need to employ armies of engineers.

Companies will have to invest in robotic process automation, artificial intelligence, analytics tools and capabilities, business process skills, consulting talent. They will need to change the revenue model from one driven by selling just labour to one selling products and expertise weaved into those services.

 8.   Leveraging the World Of Many Clouds To Strategically Position IT

Cloud technology offers Internet-based IT resources to firms without the need for major, upfront capital outlays. By tapping services as they need them on a pay-as-you-go basis, businesses can stay flexible and efficient. Such a strategy is useful when companies have bursts of IT intensity in their operations, especially while launching new products or services or coping with volatility in business environments.

Businesses were initially hesitant to embrace services run by third parties in the cloud, but they have been singing a different tune over the last few years. Companies have generally overcome their initial concerns about security, reliability, dependability, and the robustness of the solutions offered on cloud platforms. For most organizations and in most sectors, cloud solutions are at least as good as and often better on those dimensions than can be achieved by local implementation of infrastructure. Another major benefit of the cloud is the flexibility it gives businesses that want to expand into new markets or diversify revenue streams through M&A.

Some obstacles persist in cloud adoption, such as businesses being slow to change their old IT ways. The key hurdle has been in the transformation of the traditional IT function, and the traditional IT support staff, into a service that has the skills needed to take advantage of cloud services. It can represent a significant change in operations, and can be challenging to staff that started in a different, pre-cloud era.

One area with a big need for transformation from cloud services is old IT software. Recent research shows that the average IT application is 20 years old. Companies still use these antiquated applications because they believe it is risky to make a change. But not changing carries its own risks, because these companies will ultimately lose their edge and competitiveness.

 9.   Challenges in developing industrial ecosystems with sustainable development having an eye on innovation

Sustainable development is not a simple, singular and well-tested path. It needs an interdisciplinary examination of resource use patterns, ecological heritage, demographics and cultural values. Industrial ecology, owing to its emphasis on using a holistic approach, can provide a valuable platform to draw out sustainable strategies and policies for developing countries to implement. It can offer a paradigm within which Industrial Ecology methods and tools can inform responses to local development challenges. Within this paradigm, sustainable industrial, rural and urban development strategies and policies in developing countries should follow from industrial ecology research and analyses.

A SWOT analysis of IE in developing countries highlights strengths of high economic growth and threats from outdated policies and inadequate industrial ecology awareness in the policy making and governing spheres. Examination of the IPAT equation in the context of developing countries highlights the role that new technological hubs such as China and India can play, the significance of increasing affluence among “new consumers” in the developing world and the role of population in managing resources sustainably.

Meeting sustainable development goals will require action on a number of fronts, including harnessing and maximizing the potential of technological innovation. Examples of such technologies include carbon capture and storage systems, more efficient irrigation methods, essential medicines, household water purification devices, and manufacturing processes that minimize waste and pollution. Too often, technologies are either not developed at all for lack of a sufficiently profitable market, or if developed, are not accessible or well-adapted to end-user needs.

Society needs to adapt to provide the wealth that an increasing part of the world population is getting used to. We are on a track to ecological and resource collapse if actions are not taken soon. Technology will have to play a key role in the process of changing industrial society. But innovation has to be embedded in social and organizational innovation. We need a sociotechnical change. Environmentally conscious design has been practiced in engineering design for more than a decade. Its merits are sometimes blamed as futile, as the world has not witnessed a significant contribution to the solution of the larger (global) problems.

A practical challenge for industrial ecology (IE) is to help accommodate nine billion modestly affluent citizens on this planet by 2050. The theoretical challenge is how to develop the most relevant analysis. Theory development in industrial ecology is hampered by unresolved issues relating to the conceptual duality of the domain—that is, linking social science and natural science. The solution in IE modelling has mainly been to ossify causalities of the past in fixed input-output ratios, implicitly. But when it comes to developing applied solutions, core questions need to be answered, which relate to economic growth and its limits and to the potential of core technology ensembles. Answering these questions requires views on dynamics, which brings the causality issue to the front, explicitly.

Figure 1 - Social science and natural science to be combined in Industrial Ecosystem

 10.   Change management is one among the day to day chores

Most people see change as a negative and it takes a real shift in thinking to see the positive. When change is proposed you can almost hear the collective groan, “if it isn’t broke why fix it?”

This presents problems with the management of change and why change must be managed very carefully.  The strategy will, of course, depend on the scale of change proposed. How do you start?  A clear vision and a clear strategy is essential along with the ability to clearly convey both the vision and strategy.  

The organisation’s culture will also determine how successful the need for change will be.  If the culture thrives and grows the odds are in favour of success, if a culture is non-existent or poisonous that is what must be changed first.

The leaders of change along with key stakeholders and the “disciples” of change will have to work diligently to convey the message, promote positivity and diminish the negativity. The message and reasons for change must be reinforced with regular meetings and an open-door policy for those leading the charge. 

“Nothing happens without a readiness to change”

John Kotter, the preeminent change management expert, has written: “People don’t change a minute before they’re ready.” You can’t force people to change—you can only help them want to. One of the best ways to change human behaviour is to gather people with similar problems together. Bringing employees together in peer groups to discuss change initiatives can create accountability, mutual generosity, a judgment-free attitude, and increased pressure on reluctant employees to change.

You are the company you keep & Continuous introspection is key.

Change is the law of life and those who look only to the past or present are certain to miss the future”

 11. Security issues & risk that comes along with technology advancement

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the growing trend of non-traditional devices being connected to the Internet. Industry analysts from IDC suggest that the IoT, and related technology ecosystem that will be supporting it, is expected to create a $8.9 trillion market in 2020 with an estimated 20 billion devices!

Wearable computing is the integration of smart-tagging and computing power into clothing, jewellery and other accessories. Current estimates suggest that wearable computing will experience a CGAR of about 18 percent and top $10 billion by 2020.

Vehicle as a computing platform is the movement to turn the average consumer and commercial vehicle into a computing platform with a supporting infrastructure to create new and innovative application. Current market estimates suggest that vehicles equipped with this technological capability will top 1.5 billion worldwide by 2020.

As with all innovations that drive an era of technological advancement, there are issues and challenges and this coming period of rapid technological change is no exception. Security challenges, privacy concerns, changes to business, the regulatory environment, and the impact of everyone’s daily lives are barriers that will surely accompany this period. All of these issues and challenges must be addressed if the technology innovations are to reach their true potential!

As technology advances, and it always will, organizations need to be aware of the important steps in mitigating risks. These advances provide us faster communications, more accurate information, and the ability to seamlessly collaborate around the world. With the benefits that come with technology, additional risks follow. The information you use to do business, internally and externally, as well as up and down the organizational chart, needs to be handled in a way that protects you and your organization. How you store information, move it, and get rid of it play a critical role in the risk potential relating to internal information. Any information that, by itself or in combination with publicly available information, can be used to disable or misuse organization or individual assets, cause harm to the organization or its personnel and customers, or cause a safety or security issue must be protected throughout the lifecycle of that information. This information likely includes your organization’s: financial data, HR personnel information, customer data, or critical infrastructure.

 12. Technology evolution, quick adoption, and increasing regulations; are organizations forced to move faster?

From blockchain and augmented reality to the Internet of Things and the socially responsible applications of technology, these trends embody the macro forces fueling innovation: digital, analytics, cloud, and the changing role of IT within the enterprise. Technology will continue to become more human-centric to the point where it will introduce transparency between people, businesses, and things. This relationship will become much more entwined as the evolution of technology becomes more adaptive, contextual and fluid within the workplace, at home, and interacting with businesses and other people.

As technology evolves and user adoption speeds increase, organizations are forced into faster and faster cycles of response. The underlying technologies and rapid speed of evolution required to succeed with newer business models are real challenges for the average executive. Incumbent companies and traditional boards need new thinking and skills to succeed. At the same time, increasing regulation, and security/privacy issues increase the risk and exposure if the response, product or solution has not been properly thought through. So organizations are caught between the risk of doing nothing – which risks putting them at a competitive disadvantage – or doing something too quickly without proper due diligence which exposes them to potentially reputation destroying punitive government or legal sanctions. The legal issues against internet giants will be increasingly complex and difficult, eventually impacting their business models, profit margins, and share performance. A good example is the licensing and regulatory issues of sharing economy services such as Uber and Airbnb. Hong Kong court recently convicted Uber drivers of driving without a permit and third-party insurance, while the government has adopted more stringent enforcement to deter the car-sharing service. Uber is encountering similar difficulties in several US states and other countries as well.

As this is not going to change anytime soon, organizations need to find a way of managing the complexity. Amid this turmoil, organizations that can confidently and purposefully harness technology trends will find great opportunities to refocus, to revitalize, or even to inspire.

 13.The Machine Learning Revolution: How it Works and its Impact on employment (HR)

Machine Learning was born from pattern recognition and the theory that computers can learn without being programmed to perform specific tasks. The iterative aspect of machine learning is important because as models are exposed to new data, they are able to independently adapt and learn from previous computations to produce reliable, repeatable decisions and results. Because of new computing technologies and processing that are cheaper and more powerful, availability of growing volumes and varieties of data, and affordable data storage, machine learning today is not same as machine learning of the past. These developments have made possible to build Machine Learning models quickly and automatically that can analyse bigger, more complex data and deliver faster, more accurate results – even on a very large scale. And by building precise models, an organization has a better chance of identifying profitable opportunities – or avoiding unknown risks.

Most industries working with large amounts of data have recognized the value of machine learning technology. By gleaning insights from this data, organizations are able to work more efficiently or gain an advantage over competitors. It’s hard to find an industry that is not being impacted by machine learning applications. While often highlighted in finance or operations, machine learning will also have a significant impact on the HR industry. It can be used in the future to aid recruitment decisions and improve employee retention by better analysis of behavioural patterns. For example, Machine learning based applications can detect unusual but typically undetectable patterns in data, based on a supervisor’s actions, relative to time or scheduling inputs. These unusual patterns could indicate wider operational issues such as inaccurate labour forecasts. These situations often go unnoticed by management because each event is too small to register on traditional analysis – but to the individual who is impacted, it is significant and in cumulative effect to the company, it can explain why performance isn’t as expected. By training these algorithms on the drivers and outcomes of thousands of previous employees, the indicators of success can be identified and acted upon. It can also be applied more simply to administrative tasks that make employees’ lives better.

The development of Machine Learning also adversely impacts the employment. The global tech industry is increasingly relying on automation, robotics, big data analytics, machine learning and consulting — technologies that threaten to bypass and even replace workers. Conversational interfaces like chatbots and virtual assistants are in the midst of an enterprise market evolution. Virtual assistants automate the recurring business tasks that employees are required to use in the workplace, including interactions with Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and line of business software, including Microsoft, Oracle, Salesforce, SAP, and others. Automation reduces the training each system and role requires, which can be as much as 18% of the cost to implement an ERP system resulting in more than US$100,000 savings for a large enterprise.

This shift is now compelling employees to take measures to make use of this transformation and up-skill themselves. A better and positive way of looking at these changes would be to see them as providing newer opportunities as they could open up new areas and create new jobs that simply shift tech work rather than eliminate it.